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The Governing Principles of Ancient China - Qunshu Zhiyao 360

Formation of Cliques

The book of Hong Fan said: “No favor to anyone, no cronies in the government. The righteous path taken by the former sage-kings was fair and mighty.”

Scroll 39: Lu Shi Chun Qiu

When a leader mistakes a person accepted by marketable social standard as a wise person, and mistakes another defamed by society as an unworthy person, this will cause people with the support of a faction to be appointed while those who are not part of a faction cannot get any promotion. As a result, the malicious factions will band together to oust the virtuous and the able; loyal ministers who are innocent will be condemned to death, while ministers with undeserved reputation will be knighted. So the days will become more tumultuous and the survivability of the country will be numbered.

Scroll 31: Liu Tao